Reflects the emotional connection between teachers and students and among students, and the warmth, respect, and enjoyment communicated by verbal and non-verbal interactions (Pianta, LaParo, & Hamre, 2008).
– Relationships: e.g. physical proximity, peer relations, shared positive emotions, interaction
– Positive affect: e.g. enthusiasm, smile
– Respect: e.g. warm and calm voice, using children’s names, listening others, collaboration, respectful language used
– Positive communication: e.g. positive comments and expectations