Instructional support (read more)

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It has been found that the quality of instruction and feedback from the teacher is also an influential promoter of children’s learning (Yates & Yates, 1990). Instructional support focuses on the ways in which teachers implement instructional discussions and activities to effectively support children’s cognitive and language development (Pianta et al., 2008). Good teacher promote children’s learning by providing additional explanations and ideas (Meyer, Wardrop, Hastings, & Linn, 1993), by scaffolding and providing support (Bogner et al., 2002), and by asking challenging questions (Dolezal et al., 2003). High-quality feedback extends children’s learning by suggesting alternative ways of thinking and by emphasizing deeper understanding of concepts rather than the correctness of answers (La Paro et al., 2004). High instructional quality has been found to be associated with students’ classroom engagement (Downer, Rimm-Kaufman, & Pianta, 2007), their academic outcomes (Hamre & Pianta, 2005; Howes et al., 2008), and more positive interactions with teachers and peers (NICHD ECCRN, 2002). Instructional support also has particular relevance for the developmental outcomes of at-risk children: Higher teacher instructional support can aid in closing the gap in academic achievement between  at-risk children and children without common risk indicators (Hamre & Pianta, 2005).