Literacy learning

Reading motivation

Interest in reading contributes to reading activity and to the amount of reading, which in turn promotes students’ reading performance. Teachers (and their instruction) provide an important ...

Pre-literacy skills

While reading and writing aren’t typically taught until after preschool, children can begin developing the skills they need to become strong readers from a very young age. Pre-literacy skills include e.g., wanting to look at books, following narratives, recognizing print, learning vocabulary and identifying letters and sounds and important memory skills.


[etale_toc] Learning to Read The purpose of reading skills is to enable the reader to interact with written language and to understand the meaning of the text. However, reading skills ...

Reading comprehension

Reading comprehension

Spelling and Writing

Productive writing

Productive writing

Adult literacy

Literacy is a key for sustainable development improving child and family health and nutrition, reducing poverty, and expanding life opportunities. Almost two-thirds of illiterate adults are women. Children and adults learn in fundamentally different way influencing the way they should be taught. The planning of adult literacy programme requires identifying stakeholders and learners´ needs and motivations.

Important background factors

Learning to read is affected, in addition to linguistic skills, also by more general background factors of learning. The most important of these are learners’ motivation, attention, self-regulation and learning skills.