Literacy learning

Reading motivation

Pre-literacy skills

While reading and writing aren’t typically taught until after preschool, children can begin developing the skills they need to become strong readers from a very young age. Pre-literacy skills include e.g., wanting to look at books, following narratives, recognizing print, learning vocabulary and identifying letters and sounds and important memory skills.

Decoding and spelling

Reading comprehension

Reading comprehension

Spelling and Writing

Productive writing

Productive writing

Adult literacy

Adult literacy

Important background factors

Learning to read is affected, in addition to linguistic skills, also by more general background factors of learning. The most important of these are learners’ motivation, attention, self-regulation and learning skills.