We all have a phonological processing system, which is used to process basic word sounds. These basic word sounds are called phonemes. This is what children tend to learn when they begin to practice decoding. These phonemes are blended together to form spoken words.
The phonological processing system’s main role is to analyze and manipulate sound structures of words. This means that you can hear the sounds and syllables of the words and convert them into letters (spelling). You can also see letters on a page and convert them into something you can hear (reading). Many children with reading difficulties struggle to either split words they hear into separate sounds or combine sounds to syllables and words. Because of this they are more likely to struggle with reading and spelling. (links to Ritva’s text)